Graphene: what's next?

Hybrid metal/graphene bring together the best of both worlds!

In recent years, graphene has been intensively studied for interconnect applications, where it has potential to fulfill diverse roles.

The material has for example been considered as an oxidation barrier and as an ultrathin diffusion barrier for metals.

Researchers have also investigated the feasibility of using multilayer graphene wires or nanoribbons as an alternative conductor.

Despite these interesting properties, graphene has one major drawback: intrinsically, it does not hold enough charge carriers to be useful as a local interconnect.

The lack of charge carriers severely reduces its electrical conductivity, a key metric for interconnect performance that is proportional to both the mobility and the carrier concentration.

Fortunately, there are ways to further modulate graphene’s conductivity.

This has driven the research of so-called graphene nanoribbons – graphene layers patterned into narrow strips.

The specific angular orientation of the graphene layers with respect to their underlying layer provides another knob for improvement.

Finally, the conductivity of graphene can be boosted by doping, this way providing graphene with extra electrons or holes to carry the current.

Doping can be performed in several ways, for example by metal-induced doping – enabled by bringing graphene in direct contact with metals like Cu or Ru.

These hybrid metal/graphene schemes bring together the best of both ‘worlds’: the high carrier concentration of the metal and the high mobility of graphene.

Graphene-capped metal hybrid structures provide an answer to the RC delay problem for future interconnects.

While graphene-capped metal interconnects are the most mature, stacks of alternating layers may come into play in the longer term.

graphene superconductor


We are including articles, graphics and brochures on the site that can also be downloaded in French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.

During insertion, some pages will be temporarily unreachable.

We apologize for the inconvenience.


Nous sommes en train d'insérer sur le site des articles, des graphiques et des brochures qui peuvent également être téléchargés en français, italien, espagnol et portugais.

Lors de l'insertion, certaines pages seront temporairement inaccessibles.

Nous nous excusons pour le dérangement.


Stiamo inserendo nel sito gli articoli, le grafiche ed i depliant scaricabili anche in francese, italiano, spagnolo e portoghese.

Durante l'inserimento alcune pagine saranno temporaneamente non raggiungibili.

Ci scusiamo per il disagio.


Estamos em processo de inserção de artigos, gráficos e brochuras no site que também podem ser baixados em francês, italiano, espanhol e português.

Durante a inserção, algumas páginas ficarão temporariamente inacessíveis.

Pedimos desculpas pela inconveniência.


Estamos en proceso de inserción de artículos, gráficos y folletos en el sitio que también se pueden descargar en francés, italiano, español y portugués.

Durante la inserción, algunas páginas serán temporalmente inaccesibles.

Nos disculpamos por el inconveniente.